Raw Materials Overview

An overview of the main raw material groups used in perfumery

A PERFUME CONCENTRATE, known in the trade as a "COMPOUND" is typically a liquid made up from a mixture of aroma materials of synthetic and/or natural origin from the following groups.

The percentage indicates the proportions that might be found in modern perfume compounds but of course perfumes can be completely natural or synthetic too.

PERFUME CONCENTRATE ("COMPOUND")
is typically a liquid compound made up from a mixture of,aroma
materials of synthetic and natural origin,from the
following groups:
Essential Oils & Extracts
0-30%
Animal Products
0-0.1%
Aroma Chemicals
70-100%
Distilled
Steam evaporates volatile oil held in plant material which floats on the cooled water allowing it to be separated.The Oil is usually a light colour as colour molecules are generally large and not volatile.
Expressed
Juice is squeezed out of the fruit and the oil separated.Expressed oils are usually a lighter colour version of the fruit they come from.
Extracted
Solvents dissolve oil, wax and colour in the plant material. Solvents are evaporated off to produce a CONCRETE.Waxes can be removed using alcohol to produce a dark coloured ABSOLUTE
Tinctures
Animal Secretions or glands are steeped in alcohol. A dark coloured ABSOLUTE can be produced by removing the alcohol.
Crude Oil Isolates
Single chemicals separated from crude oil by fractional distillation which then go through a series of reactions.
Natural Isolates
Single chemicals separated from essential oils and the recovered vapours from wood pulp vats during paper making.
(Often used to produce other chemicals by simple reactions such as acetylation or as starting materials in long series of reactions)
Flowers:
Lavender
Ylang
Fruits:
Orange
Lemon
Flowers:
Jasmin
Rose
Beaver:
Castoreum
Benzene:
P.E.A
Galaxolide
Turpentine oil:
Pinene
(Linalool)
Leaves:
Eucalyptus
Geranium
Gums:
Benzoin
Labdanum
Cat (like):
Civet
Toluene:
Benzyl Acetate
Lemongrass oil:
Citral
(Ionone)
Buds/Seeds:
Clove
Cardamom
Lichens:
Oakmoss
Treemoss
Deer:
Musk
Napthelene:
Methyl Anthranilate
Clove oil:
Eugenol
(Vanillin)
Grasses:
Vetiver
Lemongrass
Whale:
Ambergris
Phenol:
Eugenol
Evernyl
Vetiver oil:
Vetiverol
(Vetiveryl Acetate)
Woods:
Turpentine
Sandalwood
Xylene:
Musk Xylol
Musk Ketone
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