History of Perfumery

3000 B.C. Invention of distillation. 3000 B.C. Perfumery in ancient Egypt. 2300 B.C. China - Jasmin and Lotus valued for fragrance also other scented flowers and aromatic woods. Musk used in medicine 1500 B.C. India - Use of perfumes for religious purposes: incense made from Sandalwood, Benzoin and Olibanum (Frankincense). Tuberose and Narcissus valued for fragrance. 1400 B.C. Central America - Use of incense by Inca, Maya and Aztec Civilisations 1400 B.C. Central America - Use of incense by Inca, Maya and Aztec Civilisations 1400 B.C. Central America - Use of incense by Inca, Maya and Aztec Civilisations 1000 B.C. Far East - Perfumes appropriated for secular use. 1000 B.C. India - Civet and Ambergris in use for perfumery 500 B.C. Middle East - Fragrant anointing oils made and used by Hebrews, Galbanum, Saffron Labdanum, Olibanum Myrrh and Cinnamon resins in use for perfumery 300 B.C. China - Perfumery established in China, Use of fragrant massage oils. 200 B.C. Greece - Use of perfumes and cosmetics widespread. Treatise on perfumes written by Apollonius Reinvention of distillation. 150 B.C. Roman Empire - Profuse use of perfumes and cosmetics 146 B.C. Greek knowledge of perfumes passed on to Romans. 55 B.C. Perfumes and cosmetics brought to England by Romans. 50 B.C. Egypt - Lavish use of perfumes. 0 B.C. Arabia - Famous as source of perfumes Gifts of perfume now highly esteemed. Birth of Christ Presentation of gifts of Gold, Frankincense and Myrrh to the infant Christ. 50 B.C. Arabia - famous as a source of perfumes. Gifts of perfume are highly esteemed. Birth of Christ Presentation of gifts of Gold, Frankincense and Myrrh to the infant Christ. 100 A.D. Roman Empire - Romans now skilled in the art of perfumery 411 A.D. Roman legions left Britain, but British did not develop use of perfumes until after their departure. 450 A.D. Japan - First recorded use of perfumes (in the form of incense). 476 A.D. Fall of Roman Empire to Barbarians: general decline in the use of perfumes and of perfumery. Aromatic materials used only for making incense and for embalming the dead. By means of physio-chemical and histological methods, it was possible to show that various resins, oils and spices were used during embalming of a ca. 55 year old female in Northern Greece. Image from University of Zurich. 600 A.D. Rise of Islam - Moslem mosques built some with Musk incorporated into the mortar. 632 A.D. Moslem wars of conquest began gradual spread of knowledge of perfumery into Europe commenced. 750 A.D. Geber' writings on the production of aromatic water. 1000 A.D. Invention of steam distillation by Avicenna (but means yet for the efficient condensation of distillation vapours) 1150 A.D. Invention of the water-cooled condenser in Europe. Rhazes discovered alcohol 1190 A.D. France - Perfumers Charter granted by Philippe Auguste. 1370 A.D. First known as " The Queen of Hungary's Water "and later as Hungary Water, was the first known alcoholic perfume; it was in use for more than five centuries and is believed to have been the progenitor of Eau de Cologne. 1420 A.D. Coil-type condenser invented : Improvement of efficiency of distillation processes 1450 A.D. France - Rediscovery of alcohol by alchemist Basil Valentine : Beginning of alcoholic perfumery as an industry 1500 A.D. Beginning of the Grasse perfumer industry. Application of distillation of the concentration of alcohol. Use of pomanders among kings and noblemen commenced in France spread to England and continued during the reign of Elizabeth I (1533 - 1603) 1500 A.D. Distillation of essential oils commenced: Beginning of the essential-oils industry. 1550 A.D. France - Perfumes now used profusely in the French court. Musk and Civet used in almost all perfumes Blending of perfumed waters to produce bouquets 1560 A.D. Citrus oils first described Tombarelli commenced the production of naturals for perfumery in Grasse 1589 A.D. France - Use of perfumes in the French court declined under Henri IV (1589-1610) 1600 A.D. Commencement of the widespread use of Bergamot oil in perfumery 1608 A.D. An acid (Later to be named benzoic acid) obtained by heating Benzoin 1630 A.D. England - Excise duty on soap imposed by Charles I: it's this discouraged personal hygiene and encouraged lavish and indiscriminate use of perfumes and of raw Civet as a perfume by the beaux or fashionable gentlemen of this period 1643 A.D. France - Use of perfumes in the French court was revived under Louis XIV (1643- 1715) 1650 A.D. England - The Chemists having separated from the apothecaries commenced the distillation of aromatic waters from herbs (e. g. Lavender, Elder flower and Rosemary) and sold these in their shops together with a variety of perfumed cosmetics. "Heavy" types of perfumes preferred in which animal notes predominated 1658 A.D. France - Perfumes Charter again renewed, by Louis XIV, An apprenticeship of four years, Followed by three years as a companion, was by now necessary for admission to the select company of French "Master" Perfumers 1690 A.D. Italy - Eau de Cologne invented in Milan, probably by Jean-Paul Feminis, who is said to have passed the formula to his nephew, Jean Antoine Farian, who settled in Cologne from which the original name "Kolnisch Wasser" was derived. 1719 A.D. Neuman noticed a crystalline deposit in Thyme Oil, named it thyme camphoe (later named thymol) 1730 A.D. France - Perfumes freely used in the French Court under Louis XV Perfumed powders Oils, ointments and toilet vinegar popular, Great competition between French and English perfumers in the competition between French and English perfumers in the imitation of natural flower fragrances. 1732 A.D. House of Revillon (French) established as a clearinghouse for animal pelts. 1750 A.D. Systematic cultivation of Peppermint at Mitcham, England, French soldiers returning from the Severn years War brought Eau De Cologne to France Alcoholic perfumery now firmly established 1768 A.D. Ets. Antoine Chiris founded in Grasse 1770 A.D. House of Yardley (English) established 1774 A.D. Gaubius isolated colorless crystals from Peppermint Oil (Crystals later named menthol) 1775 A.D. House of Houbigant (French) established 1780 A.D. Yardley's Lavender introduced 1782 A.D. Scheele investigated the formation and composition of esters 1795 A.D. Les Usines Lautier Fils established 1798 A.D. House of Lubin (French) established Vacuum distillation and fractional distillation invented Distillation processes in general much improved. 1800 A.D. France - Use of Eau de Cologne Further popularized by the Emperor Napolcon Bonaparte 1799 A.D. House of Atkinson (English) established 1801 A.D. Societe Chemique des Usines du Rhone established 1803 A.D. Benzaldehyde discovered in Bitter Almonds by Mortres. 1805 A.D. Probable date of the establishment of the House of Farina in Paris. This business was later purchased by the firm of Roger and Gallet 1808 A.D. Composition of alcohol (ethanol) established by Lavoisier and Saussure 1814 A.D. Composition of acetic (Ethanoic) acid established by Bernelius 1815 A.D. Composition of ether (diethyl ether) established by Gay-Lussac 1816 A.D. Commercial distillation of Peppermint Oil Commended in the U. S. A. Vanillin isolated from cured Vanilla pods by Bucholtz 1817 A.D. House of Gharabot et Gie established 1820 A.D. Naphthalene discovered by Garden. House of Roure, Bertrand Fils Established House of E. Pinaud established 1825 A.D. Faraday discovered a hydrocarbon (Later to be known a benzene) in the illuminating gas obtained by the destructive distillation of Whale Oil. House of Worth established 1826 A.D. Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) synthesized by Hennel. 1828 A.D. House of Guerlain established Wohler prepared urea from ammonium cyanate : this was the first organic compound to be prepared in the laboratory. But was not a total synthesis of an organic compound (see 1845) 1829 A.D. House of Schimmel established 1832 A.D. Formula for acetone established by Liebig and Dumas (extended over many years) Menthol isolated from Peppermint Oil by Dumas. 1834 A.D. Nitrobenzene synthesized by Mitscherlich Composition of methyl alcohol (methanol) established by Dumas and Peligot. Phenol discovered in coal tar by Runge House of Rimmel established 1835 A.D. First experimental solvent extraction of flowers by Robiquet using ether (diethyl ether) Formula for ethyl alcohol (ethanol) established by Liebig 1836 A.D. Constitution of glycerin (glycerol) established by Berthelot and Wurtz 1837 A.D. House of Hermes (French) established La Societe Anonyme Tombarel Freres established House of Procter & Gamble established 1839 A.D. House of Millot established Revillon commenced the retailing of furs Piria discovered salicylic acid 1840 A.D. House of J. B.Williams established 1841 A.D. Cedrol isolated from Cedarwood Oil by Walter Gerhardt and Gahours discovered Cuminic aldehyde in Chamomile Oil 1843 A.D. Gahours reported the synthesis of methyl salicylate 1845 A.D. Overthrow of the vital force theory by kolbe who performed a total synthesis of acetic (ethanoic) acid Hofmann discovered benzene in coal tar Petroleum discovered in the U. S. A. Societe Maurer and Wirtz established 1846 A.D. Pond's Extract Launched in the U. S. A. 1850 A.D. House of P. Robertet et Gie Established The first medicated soaps sold by W. S. Piesse 1851 A.D. House of H. Kohnstamm & Co. established 1852 A.D. House of Beecham Ltd. established in England 1853 A.D. Lallemand gave the name thymol to crystals he isolated from Thyme Oil First purification of an aldehyde (cuminic aldehyde) by the bi sulphite method by Bertignini; this quickly led to the search for and discovery of many other aldehydes in essential oils 1854 A.D. House of Bourjois established in France 1855 A.D. Gannizaro synthesized benzyl acetate (but this was not used in perfumery for many years) 1856 A.D. Wohler isolated coumarin from cured Tonka Beans. Millon prepared many flowers using volatile solvents but commercial production was abandoned 1858 A.D. House of Worth established Societe Anonyme Bertrand Freres established in France 1859 A.D. Garius reported preparation of methyl benzoate 1864 A.D. House of B. I. Johnson (Palmolive) established in the U. S. A. 1865 A.D. Kekule suggested a ring structure for the benzene molecule 1868 A.D. Perkin and Gracbe synthesized coumarin House of Heim established in France 1869 A.D. Fitting and Mielk synthesized heliotropine 1870 A.D. House of Roger and Gallet Established First reference to a product for reducing excessive perspiration Hoffmeristr reported the synthesis of Di Phenyl Oxide Introduction of Vaseline prepared from petroleum by R. A. Chesebraugh 1871 A.D. Isolation of geraniol from Palmarosa Oil described by Iacobsen 1872 A.D. House of Shiseido established House of Fritzsche established House of Mane Fils established 1873 A.D. Concretes introduced by Roure Bertrand Fils Colgate launched the first toothpaste 1874 A.D. House of Haarmann and Reimer founded in Germany Haarmann and Riemar synthesized vanillin from coniferin 1876 A.D. Wasserman isolated eugenol from Glove Oil Redzizewski synthesized phenyl ethyl a alcohol Les Fabriques De laire established 1877 A.D. Brieger detected skatole in Faeces 1878 A.D. Commercial Production of coumarin and heliotropine 1880 A.D. House of Cartr established (later to become Carter-Wallace) Krafft synthesized aldehyde C12 lauric 1882 A.D. Launch of Fougere Royale (Houbigant): the First perfume Containing a synthetic chemical to become popular House of P. Beiersdorf & Co. (to become in 1911, proprietors of Nivea Creme) established 1883 A.D. Krafft synthesized aldehyde C10 Staedel synthesized beta - Naphthyl methyl ether House of Bronnley established in England 1884 A.D. Dr. Miles Medical Co. (later Miles Laboratories ) established 1885 A.D. Wallach synthesized alpha-terpineol. House of Levere Bros. established 1886 A.D. Staedel synthesized phenyl acetic acid The California Perfume Company (later to become Avon Inc) established House of Harriett Hubbard Ayer established 1887 A.D. Menthol synthesized by Beckmann and pleissner House of Johnson & Johnson established in the U. S. A. House of Bristol Myers established 1888 A.D. The Dow Chemicla Company established in the U. S. A. Baur synthesized the first Musk smelling chemical "Musc Baur" Schnaufer and Hupfelf synthesized musk xylol (also synthesized by Baur) Bertram isolated citral from Backhousia citriodora Oil. Joseph Robert Developed a satisfactory process for large- scale Solvent extraction. The first personal deodorant " Mum " 1889 A.D. Citronellol synthesized by Dodge Commercial production of terpineol. Synfleur Laboratories established 1890 A.D. Commercial Production of Muse Baur and iso- eugenol Dodge isolated citral from Lemongrass Oil, also citronellol and citronellal from Citronella Oil Semmler prepared citral from geraniol Joseph Robert's Extraction process in use for the Manufacture of aromatic extracts 1891 A.D. Commercial production of linalol and linalyl acetate Ungerer and Company founded in the U. S. A. 1893 A.D. Tiemann and Kruger isolated irone from Orris ihizome, and synthesized ironone. Haarmann and Reimer synthesized methyl ionone 1894 A.D. Walbaum identified methly anthranilate in Neroli Oil Scheri synthesized ethyl vanillin 1896 A.D. Vanillin synthesized from iso-eugenol- this remained the preferred method for the synthesis of vanillin for the next 50 years. Perkin synthesized anisaldehyde Walbaum discovered phenylethyl alcohol in Rose Oil House of Gvelax established in London House of Hofmann la Roche Established. 1897 A.D. Darzens synthesized iso amyl salicylate Resissert synthesized indole Fischer and Giebe synthesized several acetals 1898 A.D. Methyl anthranilate synthesized by E. and H. Erdmann Further acetals prepared by Glasisen, Fischer and Hoffa 1899 A.D. Hesse isolated from Jasmin Blossom Oil 3 per cent of a ketone he called jasmone; he also proved the presence of indole in Jasmin and orange Blossom Oils. 1900 A.D. Soden and Rojahn found Rose Water to be rich in phenylethyl alcohol Walbaum found 0.1 per cent of skatole in Civet Walbaum and stephen discovered aldehyde C1 in German Otto of Rose Setphan discovered aldehyde C10 in Sweet Orange Oil Harries prepared citronellal dimethyl acetal and found it to be odourless. 1901 A.D. Fournier synthesized cuminic aldehyde Moureau and Delange synthesized methyl heptine carbonate The Monsanto Chemical Co. founded The Gillette Co. founded 1902 A.D. Hesse and Zeitschel isolated nerol from Neroli Oil The first liquid deodorant marketed La Societe Justin Dupont founded in France 1903 A.D. Haarmann and Reimer separated the isomers of methyl ionone The first safety razor produced by King C. Gillette The first aerosol dispenser for perfumers patented 1904 A.D. House of Caron Established 1905 A.D. Blaside and houillon Synthesized gamma undecalactone (Peach lactone) Hydroxycitronellal available as a commercial product 1906 A.D. Walbaum isolated a Musk-smelling ketone from natural Musk and named it muscone 1907 A.D. Claisen and Bagard prepared further acetals some of which were odorous House of Dunhill established House of Magnus, Maybee and Reynard Inc. Established 1908 A.D. House of Max factor Established in the U. S. A. Parfumes D. Orsay established in France 1909 A.D. Blaise and Kochler synthesized gamma-nonalactone (Coconut lactone) 1910 A.D. House of Elizabeth Arden Established in the U. S. A. 1911 A.D. Introduction of Nivea Creme 1912 A.D. Masson Discovered acetophenone in Labdanum Oil 1914 A.D. House of Jean Patou established in France. The first nationally advertised anti- perspirant launched Polak's frutal works established in Holland 1915 A.D. Sack isolated a Musk-smelling ketone from Civet and named it civettone. Rhodia Company founded in the U. S. A 1916 A.D. House of Myrurgia established in Spain 1918 A.D. Compagnie Parento established in the U. S. A. House of Vigny established in France 1919 A.D. Ruzicka and Fornasir synthesized linalol from acetylene and methyl heptenone. House of Molyneux established in France. House of Dragoco founded in Germany. Charles of the Ritz established a salon in New York. 1921 A.D. Chanel No-5, Launched 'Lilial' synthesized by Givaudan Methyl naphthyl ketone synthesized by Chopin House of Lanvin established in France Kolmar Laboratories established in the U. S. A. 1922 A.D. Alpha- amyl cinnamic aldehyde manufacture and sold by Descollognes under the trade name of Flosal Felton Company founded in the U. S. A. 1923 A.D. Ruzicka synthesized nerolidol and farnsesol 1924 A.D. Parfums Cheramy established in France Parfums Corday established in France La Maison Synarome established in France Norad essential Oil company founded in the U. S. A. 1925 A.D. Maison de Couture de Marcel Rochas founded in France Perfums Lucien Lelong established in France House of Faberge established in the U. S. A. 1926 A.D. Ruzicka identified muscone and civettons as macro cyclic ketones. Ruzicka and co-workers published a method for the synthesis of exaltone. Kerschbaum and Haarmann & Reimer published a method for the synthesis of ambrettolide a macro cyclic lactone Albert Verly & Co. established in the U. S. A. Roure Bertrand Fils merged with La Societe Justin Dupont 1927 A.D. Tswett a Polish botanist invented chromatography Kerschbaum discovered cyclopentadecanlide in Angelica Root Oil; this macrocyclic lactone was named Exaltolide by Ruzicka and stoll Maison de Couture Maggy rouff established in France House of Bonne bell established in the U. S. A. 1928 A.D. Ruzicka and stoll synthesized cyclopentadecanolide Parfums Weil established Maison de Couture schiaparelli established House of Helene Curtis established in the U. S. A. 1929 A.D. Knorr and Weissenborn synthesized cyclamen aldehyde Van Ameringen - Haebler Inc. (later to become International Flavours and Fragrances ) founded in the U. S. A 1930 A.D. Almay Cosmetics established 1932 A.D. House of Dana established in Spain. Revlon Nail Enamel Co. Founded in Spain Revlon Nail Enamel Co. founded in the U. S. A. House of Glairol established Stepan Chemical co. Established in The U. S. A. Maison de Couture Nina Ricci established in France 1934 A.D. Drene sulphated oil shampoo launched Zeigler and Weber synthesized muscone Ruzicka and Schinz synthesized nonadicnal and nonadienol House of Shulton established in the U. S. A. 1935 A.D. House of Lancome established Treff and werner synthesized jasmone Robertetet Cie introduced the first decolourised absolutes. 1936 A.D. House of Le galion founded Germaine Moteil Cosmetics founded in the U. S. A. 1937 A.D. Maison de Couture Balenciaga established House of Goya established Parfums Jcan Dwsses Established Carpenter (Givaudan) Synthesized Musk Tibetine 1938 A.D. Stol and Rouve synthesized leaf alcohol Parfums pierre Dune established 1939 A.D. Ruzicka awarded Nobel Prize for his work on macrocyclic compounds. 1942 A.D. Martin and Synge invented the technique of gas/liquid chrmatography. Schinz and co-workers isolated lavandulol from Lavender Oil/ Parfums Jean Desprez Founded. Parfums Robert Piguet founded Parfums Robert Jean Desprez founded Maison de Couture Gres established 1944 A.D. Toni Company founded in the U. S. A. 1945 A.D. Air-Wick launched : this was based on Zwaardemaker's theory of odour opposites Maison de Couture Balmain founded Estee Lauder Beautyb Preparations founded in the U. S. A. 1946 A.D. "Gay Manhattan" the first aerosol fragrance launched in the U. S. A. by Daggett and Ramsdell House of Perry Bros founded in the U. S. A. Parfumeric Jean D' Albret - Orlance founded Parfums Carven Established 1947 A.D. Igolen synthesized aliphatic acid nitriles 1948 A.D. Stoll and Co-workers synthesized civettone Martin and James developed gas/liquid chromatography to a high level of sensitivity and reproducibility : thereafter, the technique was adopted by many industries for research and quality control Parfums Jacques Griffe established 1950 A.D. Messrs P. Robertet & Cie introduced Butaflor Absolutes 1952 A.D. Maison de Couture Givenchy established 1953 A.D. Stock and Breslow synthesized Cedrol The first isochroman musk synthesized (the most important of these is Galaxolide - I. F. F.) 1954 A.D. Martin and Synge awarded Nobel Prize for their invention and development of gas liquid chromatography. 1955 A.D. House of Durer established in Paris Stockand breslow achieved stereospecific total syntheses of cedrene and cedrol House of Alberto Gulyer founded 1957 A.D. Lilial Developed by Givaudan 1959 A.D. Seidel and Stoll discovered rose oxide in Bulgarian Rose Oil Lyral marketed by I. F. F 1960 A.D. Maison de Couture Louis Feraud established Practical method for manufacture of leaf alcohol developed by Bedoukian 1961 A.D. Maison de Couture Philippe Venet founded 1962 A.D. Demole discovered methyl jasmonate in Jasmin Absolute and synthesized it Parfums Millot purchased by House of Revillon Gas/liquid chromatography now firmly established in perfumery The first nitriles for perfumery marketed 1965 A.D. Parfums Madeleine de Rauch founded 1966 A.D. Parfums Jacques Esterel 1701 A.D. Nicholas Lemery Observation that some flowers provided no essential oils on steam distillation 1759 A.D. Berlin Academy Reaction of oil of amber with fuming nitric acid gave a musky odour 1800 A.D. Dumas Investigations into ambra component chemistry 1833 A.D. Dumas Empirical formulate reported for anethole, borneole and camphor. 1834 A.D. Peligot & Mitscherlich Isolation of cinamic aldehyde Preparation of nitrobenzene 1837 A.D. Liebig, Wohler Isolation of benzaldehyde 1843 A.D. Cahours Methyl salicylate determined as main component of wintergreen oil 1853 A.D. Chiozza Piria Preparation of benzyl alcohol Synthesis of aliphatic aldehydes 1859-1860 A.D. Kolbe Large-scale preparation of salicylic acid 1863 A.D. Cahours Preparation of benzaldehyde 1865 A.D. Kekule Detrmination of structure of benzene 1866 A.D. Erlenmeyer Structure of cinnamic acid determined 1868 A.D. Perkin Synthesis of coumarin 1869 A.D. Filting and Mielk Discovery of heliotropin 1871 A.D. Barth Structure of heliotropin determined 1874 A.D. Reimer Synthesis of vanillin from guaiacol 1876 A.D. Radziszewski Discovery of phenylactic aldehyde 1875-1877 A.D. Perkin Synthesis of cinnamic acid 1877 A.D. Tiemann Production of anialdehyde from P-hydroxybenzaldehyde 1878 A.D. Tilden Structure of terpin hydrate determined 1880 A.D. Skraup Quinolines discovered 1884 A.D. Wallach Identification of d-limonene and dipentene 1888 A.D. Baur Discovery of nitro musks 1889 A.D. Francis Despard Dodge Discovery of citronellal 1890 A.D. Eykmann Synthesis of heliotropin from saffrole 1893 A.D. Tiemann Synthesis of ionone 1894 A.D. Wagner Structure of alpha-pinene determined 1885 A.D. Wallach Structure of terpineole determined 1891 A.D. Eckhart Discovery of Rhodinol 1898 A.D. Baur Discovery of musk ketone 1903 A.D. Moureau Baeyer Darzens Discovery of methyl heptine carbonate and homologues. Fundamental work on aromaticity. Methyl nonyl acetic aldehyde 1904 A.D. Walbaum Darzens Isolation of muscone Glycidic method synthesizing aldehydes 1905 A.D. Leser Synthesis of cinnamic alcohol 1905-1908 A.D. Hydroxycitronellal prepared and marketed 1908 A.D. Yukov, Shestakov Discovery of gamma-undecalactone 1913 A.D. Kerchbaum Discovery of farnesol 1919 A.D. Blanc Ruzicka Formasir Discovery of cyclamen aldehyde Synthesis of linalool 1923 A.D. Lesech, Descollonges Ruzicka Discovery of alpha amyl cinnamaldehyde Discovery of nerolidol 1926 A.D. Ruzicka Identification of muscone structure Structural determination work on ambra, civet Exalton 1927 A.D. Kerchbaum Ambrettilide 1928 A.D. Ruzicka Civetone Exaltolide 1933 A.D. Treff, Werner Structural determination of jasmone 1934 A.D. Weber, Ziegler Synthesis of muscone 1946 A.D. Robinson Perfection of Wallach’s isoprene rule for terpenoids 1947 A.D. Ruzicka Structural determination of irone 1949 A.D. Ruzicka Ambrox 1953 A.D. Caroll, Kimel New synthesis of linalool 1959 A.D. Bedoukian Cis-3-hexenol 1962 A.D. Bedoukian Methyl dihidro-jasmonate 1970 A.D. Demole Damascones alpha and beta
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1952 A.D.
Picture
1953 A.D.
Picture
1954 A.D.
Picture
1955 A.D.
Picture
1957 A.D.
Picture
1959 A.D.
Picture
1960 A.D.
Picture
1961 A.D.
Picture
1962 A.D.
Picture
1965 A.D.
Picture
1966 A.D.
Picture
1701 A.D.
Picture
1759 A.D.
Picture
1800 A.D.
Picture
1833 A.D.
Picture
1834 A.D.
Picture
1837 A.D.
Picture
1843 A.D.
Picture
1853 A.D.
Picture
1859-1860 A.D.
Picture
1863 A.D.
Picture
1865 A.D.
Picture
1866 A.D.
Picture
1868 A.D.
Picture
1869 A.D.
Picture
1871 A.D.
Picture
1874 A.D.
Picture
1876 A.D.
Picture
1875-1877 A.D.
Picture
1877 A.D.
Picture
1878 A.D.
Picture
1880 A.D.
Picture
1884 A.D.
Picture
1888 A.D.
Picture
1889 A.D.
Picture
1890 A.D.
Picture
1893 A.D.
Picture
1894 A.D.
Picture
1885 A.D.
Picture
1891 A.D.
Picture
1898 A.D.
Picture
1903 A.D.
Picture
1904 A.D.
Picture
1905 A.D.
Picture
1905-1908 A.D.
Picture
1908 A.D.
Picture
1913 A.D.
Picture
1919 A.D.
Picture
1923 A.D.
Picture
1926 A.D.
Picture
1927 A.D.
Picture
1928 A.D.
Picture
1933 A.D.
Picture
1934 A.D.
Picture
1946 A.D.
Picture
1947 A.D.
Picture
1949 A.D.
Picture
1953 A.D.
Picture
1959 A.D.
Picture
1962 A.D.
Picture
1970 A.D.

Dates