The ABC's of Perfumery

Systematic odour classification groups for Perfumery

The ABC's of Perfumery is very easy to learn and the most powerful tool to date for describing and classifying smells. It was published in May/June 1999 issue of Perfumer & Flavorist, the foremost journal in the perfumery and flavor industry. The Perfumers Workbook is founded on the concepts of The ABC's of Perfumery system.


Odour PROFILES / Fingerprints of single materials

Even a single aroma chemical rarely exhibits a single facet in it's odour. For example, most would agree that Phenyl Ethyl Alcohol displays primarily a rose character but many find it has a green note, others comment on it's phenolic or chemical aspects. If relative proportions are allocated to each facet that the student observes then classification falls into place quite easily.

(e.g., PEA might be classified as R, Rose 70% G, Green 30%.).

Relative IMPACT - a measure of 'strength'

The expression 'impact' has been used in preference to 'strength'. Relative impact is determined by using a Micropipette to apply a fixed amount of Linalool onto a smelling strip. The test material is added until the odour impact is judged as the same. Linalool Synthetic was chosen as the control reference material as it is readily available, being one of the most abundantly used raw materials in perfumes and flavours and because the quality from the major suppliers does not vary greatly (Givaudan, BBA. Linalool from natural sources is not suitable). In terms of its impact it falls about midway in the range of materials used by the perfumer.

Odour LIFE

Odour life is determined on the smelling strip (thinner chromatography 'paper' gives more consistent results) to the point at which the material becomes weak and uncharacteristic of itself. The results of this type of examination are very dependent on the amount dipped, ambient temperature, humidity, air-flow and testers' differences and experience. Despite this even in poorly controlled conditions one is able to produce a set of comparative values that are worthwhile measures of raw materials relative blotter lives.

Function

Every component in a perfume formula( 'compound') is there for one or more specific functions within the odour. In the program you will see that each material has a 4 letter code under Class.

e.g. Benzyl Acetate might be classed as JfMF

The first two letters indicate it is a Jasmin-fruity note, M indicates it is a Modifier, F indicates it is a Floralizer.

Basic Material
It may be there to give the basic smell of the fragrance, a rose smelling material in a Rose perfume, balsam, vanilla and oakmoss in an Oriental fragrance.

Basics therefore cover the whole spectrum of A-Z and the only materials with specific floral notes can be generalized as basics with the letter F for Floralizer

M or T = Modifier
to modify the fragrance, add style, naturalness, freshness, diffusion. Decoration for the fragrance like a banana note in jasmin. T is used for specifically top-note modifiers such as the citrus notes (lemon, limes etc.)

B = Blender
Materials to blend the sometimes disparate basic and modifying notes, to round or smooth off, to harmonise. Blenders usually have impact levels of 100 or less.

X = Fixative
In completion to fix the fragrance giving depth, substance and background. Fixatives usually have longer odour lives.

A - Z

Classification

Common Description

Key Reference Materials

A

ALI-FAT-IC

Fatty, Waxy, Soapy, Clean

Aliphatic Aldehydes, Alcohols

B

Berg - ICEBERG

Cooling, Borneol,Mint,Camphor

Menthol, Camphor, Eucalyptol

C

CITRUS

Sour, Sharp, Citrus peel

Citral, Orange, Lemon, Lime

D

DAIRY

Milky, Cream, Butter, Cheese

Diacetyl, Butyrate,Lactone,Valerate

E

EDIBLE

Vegetable, Nut, Fish, Meat

Thiazoles, Pyrazines, Sulphides

F

FRUIT

Sour, Sweet fruits, Strawberry

Allyl caproate, Verdox

G

GREEN

Cut-grass, Leaves

cis-3-Hexenol, Triplal

H

HERB (Cool)

Cool Herbaceous notes

Lavender, Sage, (Terpene based?)

I

IRIS

Orris, Violet

Ionones, Methyl Ionone

J

JASMIN

Fruity, Oily, Narcotic, Jasmin

HCA, Benzyl Acetate

K

KONIFER

Pine, Pineneedle

Terpineol, Bornyl Acetate

L

LIGHT Chemical Floral

Fresh light floral chemical

Linalool, Vertenex, DMBC

M

MUGUET

Lily of the Valley, Green, Fresh

Hydroxy, Lilial, Lyral

N

NARCOTIC

Heavy Sweet Florals, Absolutes

Narcissus, Ylang Ylang, Tuberose

O

ORCHID

Aromatic, Deep floral

Salicylates, Benzoates

P

PHENOL

Phenol, Medicinal, Honey

p-Cresol, Ethyl Phenyl Acetate

Q

Queen of the ORIENT

Resin, Balsam

Benzoin, Tolu, Terpenes

R

ROSE

Rose Otto, Absolute, Geranium

Citronellol, PEA, Rhodinol

S

SPICE (Hot)

Hot Culinary, Spice

Clove, Cinnamon, Thyme, (Cyclic?)

T

TAR & SMOKE

Smoke, Tar, Burnt

Cade, Birch Tar

U

Urine / Faecal / ANIMAL

Animal, Faecal, Leather

Civet, Castoreum, Ambergris

V

VANILLA

Sweet Edible, Vanilla

Vanillin, Coumarin, Heliotropin

W

WOOD

Wood, Oily

Cedar, Santal, Vetivert, Patchouli

X

X-rated MUSK

Sexy, Musk, Sensual, Sweet

Musk Ketone, Galaxolide

Y

EARTHY MOSSY

Yeast, Fungal, Moss, Marine

Oakmoss, Calone

Z

ZOLVENTS

Odourless Solvents, Solubilisers

DEP, DPG, IPP, Ethanol, PG